В настоящее время в Tor Browser есть бессчетные функции, которые отсутствуют в приватном режиме Firefox: ползунок безопасности; экран маршрутизации пакетов circuit display ; HTTPS Everywhere, NoScript; Tor Launcher; подключаемые транспортные протоколы; различные остальные улучшения.
На данный момент Mozilla решает: может быть, опосля слияния функций есть смысл сделать два режима приватного серфинга один из их с Tor. Конкретная интеграция с сетью лукковой маршрутизации Onion — одна из функций Tor Browser, которой не хватает в приватном режиме Firefox Пока у разрабов нет чёткого плана, какие определенные функции Tor Browser будут реализованы в Firefox.
Естественно, в эталоне хотелось бы воплотить все, не считая крайних версий протоколов v3 onion services и др. Представители проекта Tor соображают, что в случае настоящей интеграции луковой маршрутизации в Firefox возникнут трудности масштабируемости. Просто говоря, резко возрастет перегрузка на сеть Onion. Пока не совершенно понятно, как решить эту делему. Может быть, богатая компания Mozilla Corp. Речь идёт потенциально о сотках миллионов новейших юзеров в сети Tor ежесуточно.
Одним из последствий слияния Tor и Firefox станет стандартизация спецификаций протокола клиента Tor и выпуск открытой документации. Это полезно для всех: чем больше людей изучат спецификации, тем больше возможных уязвимостей и слабеньких мест будет исправлено. Mozilla на данный момент собирается приготовить испытания на соответствие протокола спецификациям. Пока что проект Fusion имеет статус опыта. Перед слиянием кода очень принципиально убедиться, что всё работает отлично и не вредит юзабилити — а также уверить всех в сохранности отправки кода Tor в Firefox.
Менеджер проекта «Слияние» Этан Ценг Ethan Tseng убеждает , что на данный момент проект Fusion поддерживается на уровне директора и технического директора компании Mozilla. Они считают, что таковым образом могут получить в браузере функциональность, которой нет у соперников. Абсолютная конечная конечная цель этого проекта — сделать Tor Browser устаревшим, и тогда общество может сосредоточиться на исследованиях, а не на поддержке форка Firefox.
Слияние Tor и Mozilla полностью разумно, ведь у проектов совпадают главные ценности. Четвёртый принцип Манифеста Mozilla : «Безопасность и приватность юзеров Веба имеют основополагающее значение и не могут рассматриваться как необязательные». В этом окне необходимо надавить на ссылку которая именуется Проверить опции сети Tor. Опосля этого раскроется страничка на которой обязано быть написано Поздравляем. Данный браузер настроен для использования Tor , а ниже будет показан присвоенный вашему компу IP адресок.
Можно поменять присвоенный браузером вашему компу IP адресок к примеру на данный момент присвоена Украина 91,,8, Чтоб поменять IP адресок компа необходимо в левой верхней части браузера надавить на зелёную луковичку и в появившемся контекстном меню выбрать Новенькая цепочка Tor для этого веб-сайта.
Единственный минус этого браузера заключается в том что анонимная сеть Tor состоит из пары нодов, а каждый из нодов производит задержку как по времени отклика так и по ширине канала то есть браузер работает с маленькими задержками при открытии странички.
Нод это узел через который передаются данные. Браузер традиционно употребляет три таковых нода которые выбираются способом случайного выбора. При передачи инфы от нода к ноду информация шифруется каждый раз, а каждый нод лишь знает от какого нода он получил информацию и к какому он её вышлет.
Используя этот браузер можно просматривать закрытые веб-сайты. Ежели Tor не подключается к сети при запуске то скорей всего у вас на компе некорректно установлено время, а может быть и дата. Чтоб установить время необходимо навести курсор прямо на время и нажав правую клавишу мыши выбрать из контекстного меню пункт Настройка даты и времени. Раскроется окно Дата и время. В этом окне необходимо поначалу надавить на клавишу Поменять дату и время и в открывшемся окне Настройка времени и даты нужно верно установить дату и время и не запамятовать подтвердить нажав на клавишу ОК.
Потом необходимо перейти на вкладку Время по вебу и надавить на ней клавишу Поменять характеристики. В открывшемся окне Настройка времени по Вебу необходимо поставить галочку у пт Синхронизировать с сервером времени в Вебе , а в окне Сервер выбрать time. Позже нужно надавить на клавишу Обновить на данный момент и на клавишу ОК , опосля таковых действий и перезагрузки компа традиционно подключение к сети Tor происходит без сбоев.
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Хотя они даже так облегчать жизнь фанбоям не должны. Тем наиболее в firefox так по умолчанию вроде и стоит, необходимо непосредственно прописать, что хочешь без s. Собственный анонимный VPN за крипту наилучшее решение. А бомжа в яйцо! А яичко - сьесть! Саратовский районный трибунал признал незаконным распространение на веб-сайте www. Реальная причина блокировок в том, что Навальный брал инфу в даркнете Проб Транспорты ставьте на абузоустойчивых раздавателях.
Нигерия, голландия и т. Не погибают, ага Просто нагнетали перед переговорами, ставки увеличивали. Кто знает, может быть блокировки Тор были тоже одним из аргументов "Видали как мы ваше влияние может к ногтю прижать? Совершенно блочить небезопасно, эти гхады могут придумать что-то еще и придется позже посиживать голову разламывать, а так вроде испытания провели, вроде помехи Голосу Америки работают - ну и хорошо.
Троцкизм проклятый. Ничего не сообразил. Сами прочитайте вторую часть коммента! Там выделяют на проекты копейки либо половину воруют. А позже всем нужно непременно воспользоваться, чтоб сделать иллюзию полезности этого проекта. Вот лишь когда пользуются все - падает он. В школах так уже который раз школьный портал ввести пробуют А здесь ща чебурнет нам делать будут через отечественные сервисы.
Сами догадаетесь с каким выхлопом? Никакихбыбок не жаль А школы то чо.. Без школ ыдло глуповатое и покорное 3. Ко входным повсевременно "прилипаю". И это понижает анонимизацию приблизительно вполне как по мне. Сам не позорься, доверчивый чукотский мальчишка Вот для тебя обыкновенные примеры не глядя Ерунду ты написал, а вот на справедливые вопросцы, данные для тебя, так и не ответи Касательно чего же По всей ветке - откомментировал от вас каждый пост Откомментировал, ещё большими глупостями, ежели в своём первом сообщении А что-то по делу будет По делу для тебя в первом ответе написали Как как будто неизменная неповторимая точка подключения - твой провайдер кое-чем лучше И что же опосля расшифровки будет видно Точно Все Тот самый зашифрованный траф Естественно помечается Помечается вот так - - Но при этом нет никакой пометки т И ничего про конечный IP-адрес, с которого ты подключаешься к Опеннету Ты безна Какой он имеет значение - когда имеет значение сущность вопросца, а конкретно двойной VP Иди отсюда, учить Теоретик хренов Все рваться будет Иди читай хотя бы вики Фортуны У нас на Чукотке ещё в году выяснилось, что в Monero всё просто отсле Вот, напишите мне сюда адресок ниже - в таком случае почему REvil при собственных опер Биткойны Они требовали биткойны, пока не пропали опосля звонка Джо Байдена Путин Деанонимируют по сериникам железа Не задумывался о такм А крипту где будешь брать Лицензия: CC-BY.
Главные слова: tor. Поддержать дальнейшую публикацию новостей на OpenNET. Обсуждение Браузер может слать запросы не лишь через прокси, к примеру, о телеметрии и это дозволит вычислить анона. Анон или умный и без тебя знает, или глуповатый и советы ему не посодействуют.
Мы здесь блокировки веб-сайтов обходить собрались, а не сообщения о минировании метро на почту отправлять. Нафиг его минировать, короновируса довольно чтобы вывести из строя и без паники. Анон может применять утилиты для скачки браузера, ежели по другому никак.
А у кого есть ссылка как запускать Tor Browser, в контейнере? Но почему 1-ый узел знает, что он передаёт далее, и почему крайний узел знает, что он получает и откуда? Возможность не обязана быть выше, беря во внимание, что там всего полтора хопа в среднем я так понимаю в угоду тем, кто жаловался на скорость? Они стрипуются. Написано же, хакеры метку ставят на пакет при прохождении им входного узла, подконтрольного сиим взломщикам.
Для чего нужна эта фича? Как выяснить, что пользователь выслал таковой пакет, а не иной который уже с меткой? Сейчас будет. Быстрее да, чем нет. Без меня и остальных юзеров Fedora эта децентрализованная сеть обходится. Ну раз никто никому не должен, развивайте I2P без юзеров Fedora Tor не будет знать IP адресата и не сумеет перенаправлять траф на версию веб-сайта без https и т.
А можно просто запретить браузеру даунгрейд с https до http. Не все веб-сайты употребляют https и тогда подставной выходный узел Tor будет их траф мониторить. А крипту на бомжа! Причём она расположена на некий определенной страничке страничка "О проекте". Может быть, это некий блок текста. Можно скрыть этот блок текста для русскоязычных IP, и получить разбан. Осталось лишь выяснить, какая конкретно информация на страничке, по мнению регулятора, нарушает закон.
Регулятор же не желает говорить. Либо скрыть страничку полностью. Саратовский районный трибунал признал незаконным распространение на веб-сайте www torpro Хотя и не имеет права. По факту, такие возможности он имеет, и управы на него нет. Опричнина - очень обычное решение Пункт в законе говорит о запрете запрещённой инфы. А перечень запрещённой инфы определяется не законом, а лишь желанием пары-тройки лиц. Это не регулятор, а решение определенного суда, который посчитал, что методы обхода блокировок тоже нужно запретить в целях принципа исполнимости.
Вопросец спорный и здесь много отраслей права пересекается. Но лучше бы TORу не позиционировать проект как конкретно обход блокировок, а позиционировать как инструмент для обеспечения приватности. Пускай пауки дерутся, народу спокойнее А вот то что он реально подставился, будучи юристом Наводит на мысли что не все так просто Будет продолжение опосля отсидки.
Когда российскому правосудию мешало неисполнимость решений? Вы право удивляете райсиян. Найден инструмент борьбы со глобальным злом Судья симшин и какой то прокурор будут клеймить всех вредоносов судебными решениями. Это ли не чудо! Просто нужно убрать бинарники и бросить сорсы, тогда под формулировку "распространяют бравзер" будет удовлетворено.
Чтоб заблочить исходники, нужен новейший трибунал. Уж за сиим дело не станет, состряпают за полдня. Ежели это была бы причина, то не блокировали бы по маске всё поддомены. Так эту "формальную причину" просто обойти, заменив страничку "О проекте" на текст "Эта страничка недосягаема в вашем регионе". Его заблокировали, так как тупому быдлу проще будет разъяснить, что в Tor накротиками торгуют и это не шуточка, почти все товарищмайоры реально так задумываются, поэтому что им это отдел К науськивает.
Так ведь вчера по ТВ посматриваю в порядке наблюденяи за поциентом так и накачивали, "Блокировка Тор не есть нарушение свобод. О какой свободе может идти речь, свободе продавать орудие и брать наркотики? Самое замечательное в этом то, что в эту формулу заместо Тор можно подставить все что угодно, Фейсбук к примеру либо Ютуб.
Вообщем что еще можно ожидать от людей на полном серезе утверждающих, что в вебе ничего не считая порнухи и наркотиков нет. Что там. Вообще-то тор и впн не предоставляют никакой информационной ценности и их блокировка вправду не нарушает права юзеров на доступ к инфы, ровно как и блокировка пйесбук, гугель и иных. Их блокировка усложняет доступ к инфы, но так делают все и со всех сторон.
Тот же гугель с пейсбуком фильтруют результаты запросов скрывая "нежелательную" информацию от собственных юзеров и я что-то не увидел толп беснующихся хомяков. Как постоянно, людям нельзя, государству можно. Двухголовый ощипанный муниципальный спрут считает всех родившихся на его местности своими рабами. И опосля этого ещё просит его уважать и обожать. Так именуемый "регулятор" обычно брешет, по законам РФ цензура запрещена. А тем кто реально посиживают за лайки и репосты, от твоего "по законам РФ цензура запрещена" стало легче?
Порно тоже запрещено Но почувствуте разницу, как говорится За это никого не садят. Подымайте реллеи, ребзя! Хотя бы не выходные толку от их на местности Рф особо нету , просто промежные. Ну подумаешь, там некий тор прикрыли. От этого не погибают. Ежели кому-то не нравится, то необходимо как-то формулировать, что конкретно не нравится. Это раз. Чтоб вас услышали, необходимы организованные деяния.
Это два. Про режим ещё не все сообразили, так вот людей реально убивают. Не так много пока. Но это дело временное. Это три. Хорошего всем здоровья. Many of those are now made by well-known brands such as Samsonite You should just not carry such RFID devices while conducting sensitive activities.
See Appendix N: Warning about smartphones and smart devices. Geolocation is not only done by using mobile antennas triangulation. It is also done using the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices around you. When your Android smartphone or iPhone is on and not in Plane mode , it will scan actively unless you specifically disable this feature in the settings Wi-Fi access points, and Bluetooth devices around you and will be able to geolocate you with more precision than when using a GPS.
The issue is that this probing is unique and can be used to uniquely identify a user and track such user. Shops, for example, can use this technique to fingerprint customers including when they return, where they go in the shop and how long they stay at a particular place.
This allows them to provide accurate locations even when GPS is off, but it also allows them to keep a convenient record of all Wi-Fi Bluetooth devices all over the world. Which can then be accessed by them or third parties for tracking. Note: If you have an Android smartphone, Google probably knows where it is no matter what you do. You cannot really trust the settings. The whole operating system is built by a company that wants your data. Remember that if it is free then you are the product.
But that is not what all those Wi-Fi access points can do. Recently developed techs could even allow someone to track your movements accurately just based on radio interferences. Even if they have no smartphone on them. These devices can fit in a small bag and can take over the Wi-Fi environment of any place within their range.
These devices can force Wi-Fi clients to disconnect from their current Wi-Fi using de-authentication, disassociation attacks 68 while spoofing the normal Wi-Fi networks at the same location. They will continue to perform this attack until your computer, or you decide to try to connect to the rogue AP. These devices can then mimic a captive portal 69 with the exact same layout as the Wi-Fi you are trying to access for instance an Airport Wi-Fi registration portal. Or they could just give you unrestricted access internet that they will themselves get from the same place.
Once you are connected through the Rogue AP, this AP will be able to execute various man-in-the-middle attacks to perform analysis on your traffic. These could be malicious redirections or simple traffic sniffing. These can then easily identify any client that would for instance try to connect to a VPN server or the Tor Network. This can be useful when you know someone you want to de-anonymize is in a crowded place, but you do not know who. These can also be used to carefully craft and serve you advanced phishing webpages that would harvest your credentials or try to make you install a malicious certificate allowing them to see your encrypted traffic.
How to mitigate those? Tor and VPNs are not silver bullets. Many advanced techniques have been developed and studied to de-anonymize encrypted Tor traffic over the years Most of those techniques are Correlation attacks that will correlate your network traffic in one way or another to logs or datasets. Here are some examples:.
For example, do not connect to Tor from your University Network to access a University Service anonymously. Instead, use a different source point such as a public Wi-Fi that cannot be correlated easily by an adversary. Consider the use of multiple layers such as what will be recommended in this guide later: VPN over Tor so that an adversary might be able to see that someone connected to the service through Tor but will not be able to see that it was you because you were connected to a VPN and not the Tor Network.
Be aware again that this might not be enough against a motivated global adversary 76 with wide access to global mass surveillance. Such an adversary might have access to logs no matter where you are and could use those to de-anonymize you.
These adversaries are out of the scope of this guide. Be also aware that all the other methods described in this guide such as Behavioral analysis can also be used to deanonymize Tor users indirectly see further Your Digital Fingerprint, Footprint, and Online Behavior. Lastly, do remember that using Tor can already be considered suspicious activity 77 , and its use could be considered malicious by some Remember that such attacks are usually carried by highly skilled, highly resourceful, and motivated adversaries and are out of scope from this guide.
Disclaimer: it should also be noted that Tor is not designed to protect against a global adversary. Design goals and assumptions. Well, unfortunately, no, this is now becoming true at least for some devices:. Samsung Phones Android 10 and above MacBooks macOS Such devices will continue to broadcast identity information to nearby devices even when offline using Bluetooth Low-Energy They do not have access to the devices directly which are not connected to the internet but instead use BLE to find them through other nearby devices They are using peer-to-peer short-range Bluetooth communication to broadcast their status through nearby online devices.
The IMEI is tied directly to the phone you are using. This number is known and tracked by the cell phone operators and known by the manufacturers. It is possible but difficult and not illegal in many jurisdictions 89 to change the IMEI on a phone but it is probably easier and cheaper to just find and buy some old working Burner phone for a few Euros this guide is for Germany remember at a flea market or some random small shop. The IMSI is tied directly to the mobile subscription or pre-paid plan you are using and is tied to your phone number by your mobile provider.
The manufacturer of the Phone can trace back the sale of the phone using the IMEI if that phone was bought in a non-anonymous way. And if you are using a phone that you bought online or from someone that knows you. It can be traced to you using that information. The IMSI is then tied to the identity of the buyer of the card. In the countries where the SIM can still be bought with cash like the UK , they still know where which shop it was bought and when.
Or again the antenna logs can also be used to figure out which other phone was there at the moment of the sale. They too can trace back the history of the phone and to which accounts it was tied in the past These devices can impersonate to spoof a cell phone Antenna and force a specific IMSI your phone to connect to it to access the cell network. While there are some smartphones manufacturers like Purism with their Librem series 98 who claim to have your privacy in mind, they still do not allow IMEI randomization which I believe is a key anti-tracking feature that should be provided by such manufacturers.
The MAC address 99 is a unique identifier tied to your physical Network Interface Wired Ethernet or Wi-Fi and could of course be used to track you if it is not randomized. As it was the case with the IMEI, manufacturers of computers and network cards usually keep logs of their sales usually including things like serial number, IMEI, Mac Addresses, … and it is possible again for them to track where and when the computer with the MAC address in question was sold and to whom.
Maybe yours before you decided to use the MacBook for sensitive activities. Some commercial devices will keep a record of MAC addresses roaming around for various purposes such as road congestion If you use your own laptop, then it is crucial to hide that MAC address and Bluetooth address anywhere you use it and be extra careful not to leak any information.
Again, it can be used to track you as manufacturers and operating system makers keep logs of such information. Operating systems have protections in place to randomize those addresses but are still subject to vulnerabilities On Windows 10, you will need to disable and enable the Bluetooth device in the device manager itself to force randomization of the address for next use and prevent tracking. In general, this should not be too much of a concern compared to MAC Addresses. BT Addresses are randomized quite often.
Those management platforms are small operating systems running directly on your CPU as long as they have power. These have already been affected by several security vulnerabilities in the past that allowed malware to gain control of target systems.
These are also accused by many privacy actors including the EFF and Libreboot of being a backdoor into any system If you are feeling a bit more adventurous, you could install your own BIOS using Libreboot or Coreboot if your laptop supports it be aware that Coreboot does contain some propriety code unlike its fork Libreboot.
Some of these can be avoided using Virtualization Software settings that can mitigate such exploits. I will therefore mitigate some of these issues in this guide by recommending the use of virtual machines on a dedicated anonymous laptop for your sensitive activities that will only be used from an anonymous public network. Most popular Operating Systems now collect telemetry information by default even if you never opt-in or opted-out from the start. Some like Windows will not even allow disabling telemetry completely without some technical tweaks.
This information collection can be extensive and include a staggering number of details metadata and data on your devices and their usage. Here are good overviews of what is being collected by those five popular OSes in their last versions:. Apple does claim that they anonymize this data using differential privacy but you will have to trust them on that.
Not only are Operating Systems gathering telemetry services but so are Apps themselves like Browsers, Mail Clients, and Social Networking Apps installed on your system. It is important to understand that this telemetry data can be tied to your device and help de-anonymizing you and later can be used against you by an adversary that would get access to this data.
This does not mean for example that Apple devices are terrible choices for good Privacy tho this might be changing , but they are certainly not the best choices for relative Anonymity. They might protect you from third parties knowing what you are doing but not from themselves. In all likelihood, they certainly know who you are. Later in this guide, we will use all the means at our disposal to disable and block as much telemetry as possible to mitigate this attack vector in the Operating Systems supported in this guide.
These will include Windows, macOS, and even Linux in some regard. Records your habits and health data steps, screen time, exposure to diseases, connected devices data. Has most likely access to most of your known accounts including social media, messaging, and financial accounts. Data is being transmitted even if you opt-out , processed, and stored indefinitely most likely unencrypted by various third parties It is also every other smart device you could have:.
Your Smart Speaker? Your Car? Any other Smart device? There are even convenient search engines dedicated to finding them online:. Your metadata is all the information about your activities without the actual content of those activities. For instance, it is like knowing you had a call from an oncologist before then calling your family and friends successively. You do not know what was said during the conversation, but you can guess what it was just from the metadata Odds are several companies are knowing exactly where you are at any time because of your smartphone In addition, this location data is even sold by private companies to the military who can then use it conveniently Your ISP however knows or at least can know you were connected to that same VPN provider on November 4th from am to 2 pm but does not know what you were doing with it.
The question is: Is there someone somewhere that would have both pieces of information available for correlation in a convenient database? Have you heard of Edward Snowden ? Now is the time to google him and read his book The way you click.
The way you browse. The fonts you use on your browser Fingerprinting is being used to guess who someone is by the way that user is behaving. You might be using specific pedantic words or making specific spelling mistakes that could give you away using a simple Google search for similar features because you typed comparably on some Reddit post 5 years ago using a not so anonymous Reddit account The words you type in a search engine alone can be used against you as the authorities now have warrants to find users who used specific keywords in search engines Think of when you draft an e-mail in Gmail.
This is because your behavior is unique or unique enough that over time, you could be de-anonymized. Analysis algorithms could then be used to match these patterns with other users and match you to a different known user.
This guide will provide some technical mitigations using Fingerprinting resistant tools but those might not be sufficient. You should apply common sense and try to find your own patterns in your behavior and behave differently when using anonymous identities. This includes:. The type of response you use if you are sarcastic by default, try to have a different approach with your identities.
You need to act and fully adopt a role as an actor would do for a performance. You need to become a different person, think, and act like that person. This is not a technical mitigation but a human one. You can only rely on yourself for that. Ultimately, it is mostly up to you to fool those algorithms by adopting new habits and not revealing real information when using your anonymous identities.
These are clues you might give over time that could point to your real identity. In those posts, you might over time leak some information about your real life. These might be memories, experiences, or clues you shared that could then allow a motivated adversary to build a profile to narrow their search. A real use and well-documented case of this was the arrest of the hacker Jeremy Hammond who shared over time several details about his past and was later discovered.
You can also view some convenient lists of some available OSINT tools here if you want to try them on yourself for example:. You will see more details about this in the Creating new identities section. That person could then go ahead and upload that selfie to various platforms Twitter, Google Photos, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat ….
In addition to this, the same picture will provide a precise timestamp and in most cases geolocation of where it was taken. Because other people have put a picture of you in their contact list which they then shared with them. Apple is making FaceID mainstream and pushing its use to log you into many services including the Banking systems.
The same goes with fingerprint authentication being mainstreamed by many smartphone makers to authenticate yourself. The same goes with your voice which can be analyzed for various purposes as shown in the recent Spotify patent Even your iris can be used for identification in some places We can safely imagine a near future where you will not be able to create accounts or sign in anywhere without providing unique biometrics A suitable time to re-watch Gattaca , Person of Interest , and Minority Report And you can safely imagine how useful these large biometrics databases could be to some interested third parties.
At this time, there are a few steps you can use to mitigate and only mitigate face recognition when conducting sensitive activities where CCTV might be present:. Wear a facemask as they have been proven to defeat some face recognition technologies but not all Wear a baseball cap or hat to mitigate identification from high-angle CCTVs filming from above from recording your face.
Remember this will not help against front-facing cameras. There was a small study showing their efficiency against IBM and Amazon facial recognition Note that if you intend to use these where advanced facial recognition systems have been installed, these measures could also flag as you as suspicious by themselves and trigger a human check.
This could for example be through e-mail or through impersonating financial services. Such attacks can also be used to de-anonymize someone by tricking them into downloading malware or revealing personal information over time. The only defense against those is not to fall for them and common sense. Using steganography or other techniques, it is easy to embed malware into common file formats such as Office Documents, Pictures, Videos, PDF documents….
These could be simple pixel-sized images hidden in your e-mails that would call a remote server to try and get your IP address. These could be exploiting a vulnerability in an outdated format or an outdated reader Such exploits could then be used to compromise your system. What is a File Format? You should always use extreme caution. To mitigate these attacks, this guide will later recommend the use of virtualization See Appendix W: Virtualization to mitigate leaking any information even in case of opening such a malicious file.
If you want to learn how to try detecting such malware, see Appendix T: Checking files for malware. You could be using those over a VPN for added security. Such exploits could be used to compromise your system and reveal details to de-anonymize you such as your IP address or other details. A real use case of this technique was the Freedom Hosting case in where the FBI inserted malware using a Firefox browser exploit on a Tor website. This exploit allowed them to reveal details of some users.
More recently, there was the notable SolarWinds hack that breached several US government institutions by inserting malware into an official software update server. This is the case for instance in China with WeChat which can then be used in combination with other data for state surveillance There are countless examples of malicious browser extensions, smartphone apps, and various apps that have been infiltrated with malware over the years.
You should always check that you are using the updated version of such apps before use and ideally validate each download using their signature if available. You should not use such apps directly from a hardware system but instead, use a Virtual Machine for compartmentalization.
Here are some examples that you can already buy yourself:. Hak5, O. Such devices can be implanted anywhere charging cable, mouse, keyboard, USB key … by an adversary and can be used to track you or compromise your computer or smartphone. The most notable example of such attacks is probably Stuxnet in While you could inspect a USB key physically, scan it with various utilities, check the various components to see if they are genuine, you will most likely never be able to discover complex malware embedded in genuine parts of a genuine USB key by a skilled adversary without advanced forensics equipment To mitigate this, you should never trust such devices and plug them into sensitive equipment.
If you use a charging device, you should consider the use of a USB data blocking device that will only allow charging but not any data transfer. Such data blocking devices are now readily available in many online shops. This might sound a bit familiar as this was already partially covered previously in the Your CPU section. Malware and backdoors can be embedded directly into your hardware components.
And in other cases, such backdoors can be implemented by a third party that places itself between orders of new hardware and customer delivery Such malware and backdoors can also be deployed by an adversary using software exploits. Many of those are called rootkits within the tech world. Usually, these types of malware are harder to detect and mitigate as they are implemented at a lower level than the userspace and often in the firmware of hardware components itself.
What is firmware? Firmware is a low-level operating system for devices. Each component in your computer probably has firmware including for instance your disk drives. These can allow remote management and are capable of enabling full control of a target system silently and stealthily.
As mentioned previously, these are harder to detect by users but some limited steps that can be taken to mitigate some of those by protecting your device from tampering and use some measures like re-flashing the bios for example. Unfortunately, if such malware or backdoor is implemented by the manufacturer itself, it becomes extremely difficult to detect and disable those. This can be obvious to many but not to all. Most files have metadata attached to them.
While this information might not directly give out who you are, it could tell exactly where you were at a certain moment which could allow others to use various sources to find you CCTV or other footage taken at the same place at the same time during a protest for instance. You must verify any file you would put on those platforms for any properties that might hold any information that might lead back to you.
This also works for videos. Yes, videos too have geo-tagging, and many are very unaware of this. For this reason, you will always have to be incredibly careful when uploading files using your anonymous identities and check the metadata of those files. Even if you publish a plain text file, you should always double or triple-check it for any information leakage before publishing.
You will find some guidance about this in the Some additional measures against forensics section at the end of the guide. Think twice. There are chances that those might contain invisible watermarking within them that would include information about you as a viewer.
Such watermarks can be enabled with a simple switch in like Zoom Video or Audio or with extensions for popular apps such as Adobe Premiere Pro. These can be inserted by various content management systems. These watermarks are not easily detectable and could allow identification of the source despite all efforts.
In addition to watermarks, the camera used for filming and therefore the device used for filming a video can also be identified using various techniques such as lens identification which could lead to de-anonymization. You will have to use common sense. Did you know your printer is most likely spying on you too? Even if it is not connected to any network? This is usually a known fact by many people in the IT community but few outside people. Many printers will print an invisible watermark allowing for identification of the printer on every printed page.
This is called Printer Steganography There is no tangible way to mitigate this but to inform yourself on your printer and make sure it does not print any invisible watermark. This is important if you intend to print anonymously. Did you ever see a document with blurred text? This is of course an open-source project available for all to use. But you can imagine that such techniques have probably been used before by other adversaries.
These could be used to reveal blurred information from published documents that could then be used to de-anonymize you. Some online services could even help you do this automatically to some extent like MyHeritage. For this reason, it is always extremely important that you correctly redact and curate any document you might want to publish. Do not pixelized, do not blur, just put a hard black rectangle to redact information. Contrary to widespread belief, Crypto transactions such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are not anonymous The issue is mainly when you want to convert Fiat money Euros, Dollars … to Crypto and then when you want to cash in your Crypto.
Those exchanges have known wallet addresses and will keep detailed logs due to KYC financial regulations and can then trace back those crypto transactions to you using the financial system This does not mean you cannot use Bitcoin anonymously at all.
You can actually use Bitcoin anonymously as long as you do not convert it to actual currency and use a Bitcoin wallet from a safe anonymous network. Overall, the best option for using Crypto with reasonable anonymity and privacy is still Monero and you should ideally not use any other for sensitive transactions unless you are aware of the limitations and risks involved.
Please do read Appendix B2: Monero Disclaimer. All companies are advertising their use of end-to-end encryption E2EE. Apple and Google are advertising their use of encryption on their Android devices and their iPhones. Well, you should know that most of those backups are not fully end-to-end encrypted and will hold some of your information readily available for a third party.
You will see their claims that data is encrypted at rest and safe from anyone … Except they usually do keep a key to access some of the data themselves. These keys are used for them indexing your content, recover your account, collecting various analytics. There are specialized commercial forensics solutions available Magnet Axiom , Cellebrite Cloud that will help an adversary analyze your cloud data with ease.
If you have iCloud Backup turned on , your backup includes a copy of the key protecting your Messages. This ensures you can recover your Messages if you lose access to iCloud Keychain and your trusted devices. You should not trust cloud providers with your not previously and locally encrypted sensitive data and you should be wary of their privacy claims. In most cases, they can access your data and provide it to a third party if they want to. The only way to mitigate this is to encrypt your data on your side and then only upload it to such services or just not use them at all.
These are used on most websites for invisible user tracking but also to adapt the website user experience depending on their browser. This means that even If you log out from a website and then log back in using a different username, your fingerprint might remain the same if you did not take precautionary measures.
Most of you have probably seen enough Crime dramas on Netflix or TV to know what forensics are. These are technicians usually working for law enforcement that will perform various analysis of evidence. This of course could include your smartphone or laptop. These unrelated checks might reveal secret information to adversaries that had no prior knowledge of such activities. Forensics techniques are now very advanced and can reveal a staggering amount of information from your devices even if they are encrypted These techniques are widely used by law enforcement all over the world and should be considered.
I also highly recommend that you read some documents from a forensics examiner perspective such as:. When it comes to your laptop, the forensics techniques are many and widespread. Many of those issues can be mitigated by using full disk encryption, virtualization See Appendix W: Virtualization , and compartmentalization. This guide will later detail such threats and techniques to mitigate them. I would not want people discouraged from studying and innovating in the crypto field because of that adage.
Good cryptography is usually presented and discussed in conferences and published in various journals. All the good crypto standards are public and peer-reviewed and there should be no issue disclosing the one you use. So, what to prefer and what to avoid as of ? Prefer SHA Serpent TwoFish It is just a matter of when rather than if RSA will ever be broken. So, these are preferred in those contexts due to the lack of a better possibility. Many people have the idea that privacy-oriented services such as VPN or E-Mail providers are safe due to their no-logging policies or their encryption schemes.
Unfortunately, many of those same people forget that all those providers are legal commercial entities subject to the laws of the countries in which they operate. Any of those providers can be forced to silently without your knowing using for example a court order with a gag order or a national security letter log your activity to de-anonymize you. There have been several recent examples of those:.
Some providers have implemented the use of a Warrant Canary that would allow their users to find out if they have been compromised by such orders, but this has not been tested yet as far as I know. Finally, it is now well known that some companies might be sponsored front ends for some state adversaries see the Crypto AG story and Omnisec story In most cases, you will be the last person to know if any of your accounts were targeted by such orders and you might never know at all.
If the VPN provider knows nothing about you, it should mitigate any issue due to them not logging but logging anyway. Illustration: an excellent movie I highly recommend: Das Leben der Anderen Many advanced techniques can be used by skilled adversaries to bypass your security measures provided they already know where your devices are. Observing a blank wall in a room from a distance to figure how many people are in a room and what they are doing Observing a reflective bag of snacks in a room from a distance to reconstruct the entire room Measuring floor vibrations to identify individuals and determine their health condition and mood Realistically, this guide will be of little help against such adversaries as such malware could be implanted on the devices by a manufacturer, anyone in the middle , or by anyone with physical access to the air-gapped computer but there are still some ways to mitigate such techniques:.
Personally, in the context of this guide, it is also interesting to have a look at your security model. And in this context, I only have one to recommend:. PDF [Archive. You only have one laptop available and cannot afford anything else. You use this laptop for either work, family, or your personal stuff or both :.
Your only option on M1 Macs is probably to stick with Tor Browses for now. But I would guess that if you can afford an M1 Mac you should probably get a dedicated x86 laptop for more sensitive activities. Do you have no IT skills at all the content of this guide look like an alien language to you? You have moderate to high IT skills, and you are already familiar with some of the content of this guide, consider:.
Now that you know what is possible, you should also consider threats and adversaries before picking the right route. If your main concerns are remote adversaries that might uncover your online identity in various platforms, you should consider:. In all cases, you should read these two pages from the Whonix documentation that will give you in-depth insight into your choices:. See Appendix A2: Guidelines for passwords and passphrases. Skip this step if you have no intention of creating anonymous accounts on most mainstream platforms but just want anonymous browsing or if the platforms you will use allow registration without a phone number.
This is rather easy. Leave your smartphone on and at home. It only needs to be in working order. You should never connect that phone to any Wi-Fi. You should test that the phone is in working order before going to the next step. But I will repeat myself and state that it is important to leave your smartphone at home when going or turn it off before leaving if you must keep it and that you test the phone at a random location that cannot be tracked back to you and again, do not do that in front of a CCTV, avoid cameras, be aware of your surroundings.
No need for Wi-Fi at this place either. When you are certain the phone is in working order, disable Bluetooth then power it off remove the battery if you can and go back home and resume your normal activities. Go to the next step. This is the hardest part of the whole guide. Do verify that no law was passed before going that would make registration mandatory in case the above wiki was not updated.
Try to avoid CCTV and cameras and do not forget to buy a Top-Up voucher with the SIM card if it is not a package as most pre-paid cards will require a top-up before use. Double-check that the mobile operators selling the pre-paid SIM cards will accept the SIM activation and top-up without any ID registration of any kind before going there. Ideally, they should accept SIM activation and top-up from the country you live in.
Do not ever power it on again unless you are not at a place that can be used to reveal your identity and ideally leave your real phone on but at home before going to the safe place with only your burner phone. This step will require online access and should only be done from an anonymous network.
Skip this until you have finished one of the routes. Unfortunately, these are full of scammers and very risky in terms of anonymity. You should not use those under any circumstance. To this date, I do not know any reputable service that would offer this service and accept cash payments by post for instance like some VPN providers. But a few services are providing online phone numbers and do accept Monero which could be reasonably anonymous yet less recommended than that physical way in the earlier chapter that you could consider:.
Use at your own risk. Now, what if you have no money? In this case, you will have to rely on the anonymity of Monero and you should not use any service that requires any kind of identification using your real identity. Therefore IMHO, it is just more convenient, cheaper, and less risky to just get a pre-paid SIM card from one of the physical places that still sell them for cash without requiring ID registration.
But at least there is an alternative if you have no other choice. Some might be very efficient but many are gimmicky gadgets that offer no real protection They probably have CCTVs in all their shops and keep those recordings for an unknown amount of time. You will need to buy a coffee to get the Wi-Fi access code in most. If you pay for this coffee with an electronic method, they will be able to tie your Wi-Fi access with your identity.
Situational awareness is key, and you should be constantly aware of your surroundings and avoid touristy places like it was plagued by Ebola. While this will not be available yet to your local police officers, it could be in the near future.
You will ideally need a set of separate places such as this to avoid using the same place twice. Several trips will be needed over the weeks for the various steps in this guide. You could also consider connecting to these places from a safe distance for added security.
This part of the guide will help you in setting up the simplest and easiest way to browse the web anonymously. It is not necessarily the best method and there are more advanced methods below with much better security and much better mitigations against various adversaries. Yet, this is a straightforward way of accessing resources anonymously and quickly with no budget, no time, no skills, and limited usage. So, what is Tor Browser? This browser is different from other browsers as it will connect to the internet through the Tor Network using Onion Routing.
It is probably sufficient for most people and can be used from any computer or smartphone. If needed after reading the appendix above , activate the option and select the type of bridge you want:. Personally, if you need to use a Bridge this is not necessary for a non-hostile environment , you should pick a Meek-Azure.
Those will probably work even if you are in China and want to bypass the Great Firewall. It is probably the best option to obfuscate your Tor activities if needed and Microsoft servers are usually not blocked. As with the desktop version, you need to know there are safety levels in Tor Browser. On Android, you can access these by following these steps:. The Safest level should only be enabled if you think you are accessing suspicious or dangerous websites or if you are extra paranoid.
It is probably the best option you have on iOS. As with the desktop version, you need to know there are safety levels in Onion Browser. On iOS, you can access these by following these steps:. The Gold level should only be enabled if you think you are accessing suspicious or dangerous websites or if you are extra paranoid.
It is a bootable Live Operating System running from a USB key that is designed for leaving no traces and forcing all connections through the Tor network. You insert the Tails USB key into your laptop, boot from it and you have a full operating system running with privacy and anonymity in mind. As soon as you shut down the computer, everything will be gone unless you saved it somewhere.
Tails is an amazingly straightforward way to get going in no time with what you have and without much learning. It has extensive documentation and tutorials. And not always up to date with the Tor Browser updates either. You should always make sure you are using the latest version of Tails and you should use extreme caution when using bundled apps within Tails that might be vulnerable to exploits and reveal your location Tails uses Tor and therefore you will be using Tor to access any resource on the internet.
This alone will make you suspicious to most platforms where you want to create anonymous accounts this will be explained in more detail later. Your ISP whether it is yours or some public Wi-Fi will also see that you are using Tor, and this could make you suspicious in itself. Tails does not include natively some of the software you might want to use later which will complicate things quite a bit if you want to run some specific things Android Emulators for instance.
Tails uses Tor Browser which while it is very secure will be detected as well by most platforms and will hinder you in creating anonymous identities on many platforms. Tor in itself might not be enough to protect you from an adversary with enough resources as explained earlier. Taking all this into account and the fact that their documentation is great, I will just redirect you towards their well-made and well-maintained tutorial:.
This would allow the creation of a hybrid system mixing Tails with the Virtualization options of the Whonix route in this guide. You could store persistent VMs within a secondary container that could be encrypted normally or using the Veracrypt plausible deniability feature these could be Whonix VMs for instance or any other.
In that case, as the project outlines it, there should be no traces of any of your activities on your computer and the sensitive work could be done from VMs stored into a Hidden container that should not be easily discoverable by a soft adversary. The first USB key will appear to contain just Tails and the second USB will appear to contain just random garbage but will have a decoy volume which you can show for plausible deniability. Remember that encryption with or without plausible deniability is not a silver bullet and will be of little use in case of torture Plausible deniability is only effective against soft lawful adversaries that will not resort to physical means.
Go into Utilities and Unlock your Veracrypt hidden Volume do not forget to check the hidden volume checkbox. TAR and decompressing it within Tails. When you are done with decompression, delete the OVA file and import the other files with the Import wizard. This time it might work. Ideally, you should get a dedicated laptop that will not be tied to you in any effortless way ideally paid with cash anonymously and using the same precautions as previously mentioned for the phone and the SIM card.
It is recommended but not mandatory because this guide will help you harden your laptop as much as possible to prevent data leaks through various means. This laptop should ideally be a clean freshly installed Laptop Running Windows, Linux, or macOS , clean of your normal day-to-day activities, and offline never connected to the network yet. In the case of a Windows laptop, and if you used it before such a clean install, it should also not be activated re-installed without a product key.
Specifically, in the case of MacBooks, it should never have been tied to your identity before in any means. So, buy second-hand with cash from an unknown stranger who does not know your identity. This is to mitigate some future issues in case of online leaks including telemetry from your OS or Apps that could compromise any unique identifiers of the laptop while using it MAC Address, Bluetooth Address, and Product key …. But also, to avoid being tracked back if you need to dispose of the laptop.
If you used this laptop before for different purposes like your day-to-day activities , all its hardware identifiers are probably known and registered by Microsoft or Apple. If later any of those identifiers is compromised by malware, telemetry, exploits, human errors … they could lead back to you. It should have a working battery that lasts a few hours.
Both possibilities have their benefits and issues that will be detailed later. All future online steps performed with this laptop should ideally be done from a safe network such as Public Wi-Fi in a safe place see Find some safe places with decent public Wi-Fi. But several steps will have to be taken offline first.
For instance, some ThinkPad from Lenovo my personal favorite. Here are lists of laptops currently supporting Libreboot and others where you can flash Coreboot yourself that will allow you to disable Intel IME :. The interesting features to look for are IMHO:. Better custom Secure Boot settings where you can selectively manage all the keys and not just use the Standard ones.
These settings can be accessed through the boot menu of your laptop. Disable Biometrics fingerprint scanners if you have any if you can. Note that this feature is also specific to some manufacturers and could require specific software to unlock this disk from a completely different computer. This can help mitigate some attacks in case your laptop is seized while locked but still on OR if you had to shut it down rather quickly and someone took possession of it this topic will be explained later in this guide.
So, what is Secure Boot ? In short, it is a UEFI security feature designed to prevent your computer from booting an operating system from which the bootloader was not signed by specific keys stored in the UEFI firmware of your laptop. When the operating system or the Bootloader supports it, you can store the keys of your bootloader in your UEFI firmware, and this will prevent booting up any unauthorized Operating System such as a live OS USB or anything similar.
If you have that password, you can disable Secure Boot and allow unsigned OSes to boot on your system. This can help mitigate some Evil-Maid attacks explained later in this guide. After doing that step, only the Operating Systems from which your UEFI firmware can verify the integrity of the bootloader will be able to boot. Most laptops will have some default keys already stored in the secure boot settings.
Usually, those are from the manufacturer itself or some companies such as Microsoft. So, this means that by default, it will always be possible to boot some USB disks even with secure boot. Secure Boot is however not supported at all by QubesOS at this point. So, what is Secure Boot protecting you from? It will protect your laptop from booting unsigned bootloaders by the OS provider with for instance injected malware.
Secure Boot is not encrypting your disk and an adversary can still just remove the disk from your laptop and extract data from it using a different machine. Secure Boot is therefore useless without full disk encryption. Secure Boot is not protecting you from a signed bootloader that would be compromised and signed by the manufacturer itself Microsoft for example in the case of Windows. Most mainstream Linux distributions are signed these days and will boot with Secure Boot enabled.
Secure Boot can have flaws and exploits like any other system. Additionally, several attacks could be possible against Secure Boot as explained in-depth in these technical videos:. So, it can be useful as an added measure against some adversaries but not all. Secure Boot in itself is not encrypting your hard drive. It is an added layer but that is it.
Note that this will also prevent Apple themselves from accessing the firmware in case of repair. At some point, you will inevitably leave this laptop alone somewhere. You will not sleep with it and take it everywhere every single day. You should make it as hard as possible for anyone to tamper with it without you noticing it.
It is important to know that it is trivially easy for some specialists to install a key logger in your laptop, or to just make a clone copy of your hard drive that could later allow them to detect the presence of encrypted data in it using forensic techniques more on that later. So, there are more subtle ways of achieving the same result. You could also for instance make a close-up macro photography of the back screws of your laptop or just use a small amount of candle wax within one of the screws that could just look like usual dirt.
You could then check for tampering by comparing the photographs of the screws with new ones. Their orientation might have changed a bit if your adversary was not careful enough Tightening them exactly the same way they were before. Or the wax within the bottom of a screw head might have been damaged compared to before.
The same techniques can be used with USB ports where you could just put a tiny amount of candle wax within the plug that would be damaged by inserting a USB key in it. This route will make extensive use of Virtual Machines , they will require a host OS to run the Virtualization software. You have three recommended choices in this part of the guide:. In addition, chances are high that your Mac is or has been tied to an Apple account at the time of purchase or after signing-in and therefore its unique hardware identifiers could lead back to you in case of hardware identifiers leak.
Linux is also not necessarily the best choice for anonymity depending on your threat model. This is because using Windows will allow us to conveniently use Plausible Deniability aka Deniable Encryption easily at the OS level. Windows is also unfortunately at the same time a privacy nightmare but is the only easy to set up option for using OS-wide plausible deniability. Windows telemetry and telemetry blocking are also widely documented which should mitigate many issues.
So, what is Plausible Deniability? All this using Deniable Encryption A soft lawful adversary could ask for your encrypted laptop password. In that case, you might have to reveal the password or face jail time in contempt of court. This is where plausible deniability will come into play. The forensics will be well aware that it is possible for you to have hidden data but should not be able to prove this if you do this right.
You will have cooperated, and the investigators will have access to something but not what you actually want to hide. Since the burden of proof should lie on their side, they will have no options but to believe you unless they have proof that you have hidden data. This feature can be used at the OS level a plausible OS and a hidden OS or at the files level where you will have an encrypted file container similar to a zip file where different files will be shown depending on the encryption password you use.
In the case of Windows, plausible deniability is also the reason you should ideally have Windows 10 Home and not Pro. This is because Windows 10 Pro natively offers a full-disk encryption system Bitlocker where Windows 10 Home offers no full-disk encryption at all.
We will later use third-party open-source software for encryption that will allow full-disk encryption on Windows 10 Home. This will give you a good plausible excuse to use this software. While using this software on Windows 10 Pro would be suspicious. Note about Linux: So, what about Linux and plausible deniability?
Yes, it is possible to achieve plausible deniability with Linux too. More information within the Linux Host OS section later. Avoid, if possible, the use of plausible deniability-capable software such as Veracrypt if your threat model includes hard adversaries. Evil Maid Attacks are conducted when someone tampers with your laptop while you are away. To install to clone your hard drive, install malware or a key logger. If they can clone your hard drive, they can compare one image of your hard drive at the time they took it while you were away with the hard drive when they seize it from you.
This could lead to compelling evidence of the existence of hidden data. If they install a key logger or malware within your laptop software or hardware , they will be able to simply get the password from you for later use when they seize it. Such attacks can be done at your home, your hotel, a border crossing, or anywhere you leave your devices unattended. Have basic tamper protection as explained previously to prevent physical access to the internals of the laptop without your knowing.
This will prevent them from cloning your disks and installing a physical key logger without your knowledge. Again, they will not be able to turn them on without physically accessing the motherboard to reset the BIOS to boot a USB device that could clone your hard drive or install a software-based malware that could act as a key logger.
Cold Boot attacks are trickier than the Evil Maid Attack but can be part of an Evil Maid attack as it requires an adversary to come into possession of your laptop while you are actively using your device or shortly afterward. The idea is rather simple, as shown in this video , an adversary could theoretically quickly boot your device on a special USB key that would copy the content of the RAM the memory of the device after you shut it down.
They could then be able to copy its content for analysis. This memory dump could contain the key to decrypt your device. We will later apply a few principles to mitigate these. The same measures used to mitigate Evil Maid attacks should be in place for Cold Boot attacks with some added ones:.
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